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Used Books v. New Books?

A NY Times article about the impact of used book sales on the sale of new books. "All in all, it looks like the used book market creates a lot more value than it destroys."

New York Times
July 28, 2005

Reading Between the Lines of Used Book Sales

THE Internet is a bargain hunter's paradise. Ebay is an easy example, but there are many places for deals on used goods, including Amazon.com.

While Amazon is best known for selling new products, an estimated 23 percent of its sales are from used goods, many of them secondhand books. Used bookstores have been around for centuries, but the Internet has allowed such markets to become larger and more efficient. And that has upset a number of publishers and authors.

In 2002, the Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers sent an open letter to Jeff Bezos, the chief executive of Amazon.com, which has a market for used books in addition to selling new copies. "If your aggressive promotion of used book sales becomes popular among Amazon's customers," the letter said, "this service will cut significantly into sales of new titles, directly harming authors and publishers."

But does it? True, consumers probably save a few dollars while authors and publishers may lose some sales from a used book market. Yet the evidence suggests that the costs to publishers are not large, and also suggests that the overall gains from such secondhand markets outweigh any losses.

Consider a recent paper, "Internet Exchanges for Used Books," by Anindya Ghose of New York University and Michael D. Smith and Rahul Telang of Carnegie-Mellon. (The text of the paper is available at ssrn.com/abstract=584401.)

The starting point for their analysis is the double-edged impact of a used book market on the market for new books. When used books are substituted for new ones, the seller faces competition from the secondhand market, reducing the price it can set for new books. But there's another effect: the presence of a market for used books makes consumers more willing to buy new books, because they can easily dispose of them later.

A car salesman will often highlight the resale value of a new car, yet booksellers rarely mention the resale value of a new book. Nevertheless, the value can be quite significant.

This is particularly true in textbook markets, where many books cost well over $100. Judith Chevalier of the Yale School of Management and Austan Goolsbee at the Chicago Business School recently examined this market and found that college bookstores typically buy used books at 50 percent of cover price and resell them at 75 percent of cover price. Hence the price to "rent" a book for a semester is about $50 for a $100 book.

Ms. Chevalier and Mr. Goolsbee found that students were well aware of industry practices and took resale value into account when they bought books. (The study, "Are Durable Goods Consumers Forward Looking? Evidence from College Textbooks," is available at Mr. Goolsbee's Web site, gsbwww.uchicago.edu/fac/austan.goolsbee/website/.)

Back to Amazon. Professors Ghose, Smith and Telang chose a random sample of books in print and studied how often used copies were available on Amazon. In their sample, they found, on average, more than 22 competitive offers to sell used books, with a striking 241 competitive offers for used best sellers. The prices of the secondhand books were substantially cheaper than the new, but of course the quality of the used books (in terms of wear and tear) varied considerably.

According to the researchers' calculations, Amazon earns, on average, $5.29 for a new book and about $2.94 on a used book. If each used sale displaced one new sale, this would be a less profitable proposition for Amazon.

But Mr. Bezos is not foolish. Used books, the economists found, are not strong substitutes for new books. An increase of 10 percent in new book prices would raise used sales by less than 1 percent. In economics jargon, the cross-price elasticity of demand is small.

One plausible explanation of this finding is that there are two distinct types of buyers: some purchase only new books, while others are quite happy to buy used books. As a result, the used market does not have a big impact in terms of lost sales in the new market.

Moreover, the presence of lower-priced books on the Amazon Web site, Mr. Bezos has noted, may lead customers to "visit our site more frequently, which in turn leads to higher sales of new books." The data appear to support Mr. Bezos on this point.

Applying the authors' estimate of the displaced sales effect to Amazon's sales, it appears that only about 16 percent of the used book sales directly cannibalized new book sales, suggesting that Amazon's used-book market added $63.2 million to its profits.

Furthermore, consumers greatly benefit from this market: the study's authors estimate that consumers gain about $67.6 million. Adding in Amazon's profits and subtracting out the $45.3 million of losses to authors and publishers leaves a net gain of $85.5 million.

All in all, it looks like the used book market creates a lot more value than it destroys.

Hal R. Varian is a professor of business, economics and information management at the University of California, Berkeley.

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( 19 comments — Leave a comment )
Jul. 31st, 2005 04:08 pm (UTC)
I've bought a used book and loved the author enough to buy more of their books, new and used.
Jul. 31st, 2005 04:39 pm (UTC)
good point. i'm much more willing to take a chance at $1 than $15.
Jul. 31st, 2005 04:40 pm (UTC)
Me too. I do buy a lot of used books, but I also buy new ones. It's just new ones are crazy expensive, and it's not like books go bad. So if I can pick up a used cookbook or something I'm going to.
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:18 pm (UTC)
Or $25-35 depending on how hefty the hardcover is.
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:11 pm (UTC)
I swap books all the time. Next the publishing companies will be putting tracking devices in books to prevent that.
Jul. 31st, 2005 08:34 pm (UTC)
yeah, they must really hate paperbackswap.com & bookcrossing.com, oh & freecycle does a lot of books too.
Jul. 31st, 2005 05:30 pm (UTC)
I'm much more willing to try an author I've never read before by picking up a $1 paperback than I am one for $8...
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:16 pm (UTC)
This is just like the kerfuffle over music-sharing. Now that song-swapping and used book sales are trackable because of the new technology, music and book companies are getting riled up over something they really can't do anything about.
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:30 pm (UTC)
hmmm...I don't see used books as the same as song-swapping. Someone bought the book, passing that book on is something they should be used to. Now, scanning the book and putting a PDF online, that's different, and becoming more common. I got the potter book as an e-book on-line the day after it was out...
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:45 pm (UTC)
I saw a link to Harry Potter the weekend it came out, too. The next day the site was already shut down. They moved fast to stop it!
Jul. 31st, 2005 08:03 pm (UTC)
the place to get e-books is the newsgroup alt.binaries.e-book. Single websites can be tracked and closed down, USENET newgroups are too widespread...
Jul. 31st, 2005 06:21 pm (UTC)
We have some great used book stores here in Birmingham, and whever possible I get book sthere simply for the savings. I'm a cheap person like that. Another place I look is library sales, because they throw out some GREAT books for something like $.25 in most cases.
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:19 pm (UTC)
I recently found a cool used bookstore near my permanent office. And once you read a book purchased from there, you can trade it in for another one that's the same price. I love it!
Jul. 31st, 2005 08:38 pm (UTC)
hello, i'm in birmingham too. what are some of your fave used book stores? i just moved here last year, & haven't found any yet.
Aug. 7th, 2005 03:52 pm (UTC)
Hi! Good to meet you. Reed Books in Southside is a good place to start; the Alabama Booksmith in Homewood has a great combination of used and new books; Renaissance Records in Five Points South has a limited selection and it would be thast place I'd visit, but you never know what you might find there.
Jul. 31st, 2005 06:37 pm (UTC)
god, i can't believe anyone thought used books were a bad idea. people who think that probably all live in new jersey.
Jul. 31st, 2005 07:30 pm (UTC)
People that love reading are always going to buy books - sometimes new and sometimes used. This is such a silly issue for publishers to fret over. Why not put this energy into something useful like working with the government to give away books to babies like they did in Britain? (See link below.) That would create a whole new generation of devoted readers.

Jul. 31st, 2005 07:35 pm (UTC)
what a gorgeous idea.

well, the day publishers are interested in literature they might do that.
Aug. 2nd, 2005 11:01 am (UTC)
I very seldom buy a brand new book. Usually if it is a reference book that I want to keep. Otherwise, I borrow it from the library or buy used. Sometimes, however, I buy a used book because it is cheap, then wind up buying one or two new books buy the same author because I liked her/him and can't find it used or at the library. So, I think, in the long run, they make more money off me.
( 19 comments — Leave a comment )


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